Author Archive

Basic Nutrition Related to Veterinary Rehabilitation of Dogs and Cats

An essential component of any veterinary rehabilitation program is nutritional management because it is integral to the dog and cat’s longevity and quality of life.1, 2  As such, the central consideration of a complete rehabilitation plan for canine and feline patients considers vulnerable life stages. These stages include growth, gestation, lactation, and advancing age, altering […]

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Basics of Musculoskeletal Conditioning in Performance Dogs

Exercise itself has both a positive physical and psychological effect on the dog.1, 2, 3 Canine performance is a science in which athletic and working dogs usually perform tasks and activities at an energy level above that of the typical companion dog. Accordingly, the trained and conditioned canine athlete or working dog’s metabolism performs differently […]

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Basics of Musculoskeletal Anatomy in Birds

A bird’s exterior can be described by dividing it into main parts such as the head, neck, trunk, tail, wing (or thoracic limb), and pelvic limb.1 These parts can then be subdivided into regions to create ornithological descriptions and thus used to study birds in which some terms are widely employed while others have fallen […]

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Basics of the Respiratory System in Birds

Birds’ respiratory systems differ from that of mammals, such as the unidirectional airflow that occurs through the lungs. The avian respiratory system is used for gaseous exchange, vocalization, and thermal regulation.1 It includes a complex but efficient respiratory cycle which, along with other unique aspects of avian respiration, is the topic of this article.  Nostrils […]

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Basic Veterinary Physical Rehabilitation for the Geriatric AnimalĀ 

“Old age is not a disease,” and multiple factors such as genetics, environment, and nutrition play a role in the veterinary patient’s aging process, including metabolic and physical effects. When animals age, changes in muscle include a decrease in muscle mass, fiber size, and fiber number.1 Through these changes and increased intramuscular fat and connective […]

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Effects of Disuse and Immobilization on Six Tissues of Veterinary PatientsĀ 

Through neurologic, orthopedic, metabolic, and other diseases, veterinary patients frequently have reduced weight-bearing and use of limbs.1 Disuse, the state of not being used, is a broad label that describes tissue’s low mechanical load or mechanical unloading when not used enough.2 Immobilization is a term that describes a limb that is maintained in a fixed […]

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The Basics of Thermoregulation in Animals

One of the critical functions of the nervous system is the regulation of body temperature. Body temperature regulation is essential to maintaining homeostasis, the state of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions supported by living systems in normal function.1 Endothermic vertebrates are animals with a spinal backbone (consisting of a vertebrate) that can produce and […]

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Essential Animal Cardiopulmonary Physiology and Muscle Physiology

The basic goals of veterinary physical rehabilitation are to implement a therapeutic program that remedies musculoskeletal injuries, any injury that affects the bones, muscles, ligaments, nerves, or tendons resulting in pain. This rehabilitation process includes addressing musculoskeletal imbalances of the entire body, where tissues are allowed to heal before they are reconditioned to accept predetermined […]

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